The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the direct detection of analytes using observable spectral changes in biopolymeric systems. In particular, the present invention allows for the direct colorimetric detection of analytes using color changes that occur in glycopolythiophene polymer systems in response to selective binding of analytes.
 This invention was made in part during work partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under DOE Contract No.: DE-AC03-76SF0098. The U.S. Government has certain rights in the invention.