A crystalline, highly textured or biaxially textured, foreign (non-silicon) material, which is closely lattice-matched to silicon, is deposited on a glass or other amorphous or multi-crystalline substrate to provide a template for hetero-epitaxial growth of highly ordered crystalline silicon semiconductor layers on such substrates. This process enables crystalline silicon semiconductor devices, such as photovoltaic devices, transistors, and the like, on such inexpensive substrates, or to enable reduced temperature processing for some kinds of semiconductor devices, such as bottom gate transistors, on crystalline silicon substrates.
CONTRACTUAL ORIGIN OF THE INVENTION
 The United States Government has rights in this invention under Contract No. DE-AC36-99GO10337 between the United States Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a Division of the Midwest Research Institute.