Transmission microscopy imaging systems include a mask and/or other modulator situated to encode image beams, e.g., by deflecting the image beam with respect to the mask and/or sensor. The beam is modulated/masked either before or after transmission through a sample to induce a spatially and/or temporally encoded signal by modifying any of the beam/image components including the phase/coherence, intensity, or position of the beam at the sensor. For example, a mask can be placed/translated through the beam so that several masked beams are received by a sensor during a single sensor integration time. Images associated with multiple mask displacements are then used to reconstruct a video sequence using a compressive sensing method. Another example of masked modulation involves a mechanism for phase-retrieval, whereby the beam is modulated by a set of different masks in the image plane and each masked image is recorded in the diffraction plane.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
 This invention was made with government support under grants DE-FG02-03ER46057 and DE-AC05-76RL01830 awarded by the United States Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.