A solar cell includes a first substrate having a first surface and a second surface. An underlayer is located over the second surface. A first conductive layer is located over the underlayer. An overlayer is located over the first conductive layer. A semiconductor layer is located over the conductive oxide layer. A second conductive layer is located over the semiconductor layer. The first conductive layer includes a conductive oxide and at least one dopant selected from the group consisting of tungsten, molybdenum, niobium, and/or fluorine.
NOTICE OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
 This invention was made with Government support under Contract No. DE-EE0004736 awarded by the Department of Energy. The United States government may have certain rights in this invention.