Superhydrophobic membrane structures having a beneficial combination of throughput and a selectivity. The membrane structure can include a porous support substrate; and a membrane layer adherently disposed on and in contact with the porous support substrate. The membrane layer can include a nanoporous material having a superhydrophobic surface. The superhydrophobic surface can include a textured surface, and a modifying material disposed on the textured surface. Methods of making and using the membrane structures.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
 The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to contract no. DE-AC05-00OR22725 between the United States Department of Energy and UT-Battelle, LLC.