A method, an apparatus and a system for interrogating a battery in order to determine one or more of: (i) its state of charge (SOC), (ii) its state of health (SOH), (iii) physical state of one or more internal components or parts, which utilizes at least one sound source means for transmitting a signal (e.g., a sound wave or sound pulse through or across the battery, and at least one sound receiver means for receiving a signal from the battery, which received signal is representative of the physical state of the battery being interrogated. The interrogation method is noninvasive, namely does not require the depletion of a portion of the charge of the battery being tested or settlement or the destruction of the battery in order to evaluate one or more of (i), (ii) and (iii).
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with U.S. Federal government support under Grant No. CMMI-1402872 awarded by the National Science Foundation and under Grant No. DE-AR0000400 awarded by the Department of Energy, Advanced Research Projects Agency. The U.S. Federal government has certain rights in the invention.