The bio-programmable crystallization of multi-component functional nanoparticle systems is described, as well as methods for such bio-programmable crystallization, and the products resultant from such methods. Specifically, the systems disclosed and taught herein are directed to improved strategies for the DNA-mediated self-assembly of multi-component functionalized nanoparticles into three-dimensional order superlattices, wherein the functionalization of the nanoparticles with DNA is independent of either the composition of the material, or the shape of the nanoparticles.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT LICENSE RIGHTS
 This invention was made with Government support under contract number DE-AC02-98CH10886, awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.