This disclosure provides embodiments of photovoltaic devices. The devices include a light-absorbing anode comprised of an electrically conductive material having a plasmonic structure, a diffusion barrier, and a cathode. The light-absorbing anode and the cathode are separated by the diffusion barrier.
 This invention was made with Government support under contract numbers DE-AC02-98CH10886 and DE-SC0012704 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.