Disclosed herein are embodiments of a method to form quantum dot field-effect transistors (QD FETs) having little to no bias-stress effect. Bias-stress effect can be reduced or eliminated through, as an example, the use of a gas or liquid to remove ligands and/or reduce charge trapping on the QD FETs, followed by deposition of an inorganic or organic matrix around the QDs in the FET.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED R&D
 The present disclosure was developed, at least in part, with government support under Grant Nos. DE-SC0003904, awarded by the Department of Energy as well as the Graduate Research Fellowship, awarded by the National Science Foundation. The United States Government may have rights to this disclosure.