The invention is a capacitive, aka electrostatic, deionization apparatus and method that solves the problem of short lifetime of conventional capacitive deionization (CDI) and of membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) devices and methods by shifting the Potential of Zero Charge of electrode surfaces through surface modifications. Such electrode surface modifications provide very long lifetime capacitive deionization devices and methods.
FEDERAL FUNDING AND JOINT RESEARCH AGREEMENT
 The research leading to the invention disclosed herein was partially funded by U.S. Dept. of Energy contract no. DE-PI0000017, which contract provides partial funding for a Joint Research Agreement among the University of Kentucky, West Virginia University Research Corporation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, and 26 additional parties listed at http://www.us-china-cerc.org/Advanced_Coal_Technology.html.