A product formed from a first material including a geopolymer resin material, a geopolymer material, or a combination thereof by contacting the first material with a fluid and removing at least some of the fluid to yield a product. The first material may be formed by heating and/or aging an initial geopolymer resin material to yield the first material before contacting the first material with the fluid. In some cases, contacting the first material with the fluid breaks up or disintegrates the first material (e.g., in response to contact with the fluid and in the absence of external mechanical stress), thereby forming particles having an external dimension in a range between 1 nm and 2 cm.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST
 This work was supported by the Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under award number DE-SC0001016. The government has certain rights in the invention.