Techniques for coupling light into graphene using a planar photonic crystal having a resonant cavity characterized by a mode volume and a quality factor and at least one graphene layer positioned in proximity to the planar photonic crystal to at least partially overlap with an evanescent field of the resonant cavity. At least one mode of the resonant cavity can couple into the graphene layer via evanescent coupling. The optical properties of the graphene layer can be controlled, and characteristics of the graphene-cavity system can be detected. Coupling light into graphene can include electro-optic modulation of light, photodetection, saturable absorption, bistability, and autocorrelation.
STATEMENT OF FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with government support under the DARPA Information in a Photon program, under Grant No. W911NF-10-1-0416 awarded by the Army Research Office, under FA9550-12-0045 PECASE awarded by Air Force Office of Scientific Research PECASE, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy, under Award No. DE-SC0001088 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy, and under Award No. DE-SC0001085 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.