In disclosed explosive units for use in a wellbore, the casing can include a tubular outer body comprising grooves, pockets, or other variances in thickness that create stress concentrations that promote shear and tensile fragmentation instead of ductile expansion of the casing, which can negatively impact permeability of a wellbore. In other embodiments, the casing can comprise non-ductile and/or reactive material which responds to explosive or high temperature loading by brittle failure, disintegration, melting, burning, and/or chemically reacting with the energetic materials and/or the borehole environment. Such embodiments can enhance the permeability of the wellbore after detonation.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
 This invention was made with government support under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.