Technologies are described for methods and systems effective for etching nanostructures in a substrate. The methods may comprise depositing a patterned block copolymer on the substrate. The patterned block copolymer may include first and second polymer block domains. The methods may comprise applying a precursor to the patterned block copolymer to generate an infiltrated block copolymer. The precursor may infiltrate into the first polymer block domain and generate a material in the first polymer block domain. The methods may comprise applying a removal agent to the infiltrated block copolymer to generate a patterned material. The removal agent may be effective to remove the first and second polymer block domains from the substrate. The methods may comprise etching the substrate. The patterned material on the substrate may mask the substrate to pattern the etching. The etching may be performed under conditions to produce nanostructures in the substrate.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT RIGHTS
 The present application was made with government support under contract number DE-AC02-98CH10886 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States government has certain rights in the invention(s).