The present invention provides for a method of genetically modifying microorganisms to enhance resistance to ionic liquids using a yeast Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS), or a Salmonella MFS SmvA Pump or SmvR Regulator, a Small Multidrug Resistance Family (SMR), or Saccharomyces cerevisiae YDR090C, polypeptide, host cells genetically modified in accordance with the methods, and methods of using the host cells in a reaction comprising biomass that has been pretreated with ionic liquids.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENTAL SUPPORT
 This invention was made with government support under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 awarded by the United States Department of Energy and Award No. EEC-0540879 awarded by the National Science Foundation. The government has certain rights in the invention.