Methods and systems for hydrogen production or production of a reduced target molecule are described, wherein a nicotinamide co-factor dependent membrane hydrogenase or a nicotinamide co-factor dependent membrane enzyme presented on a nanolipoprotein adsorbed onto an electrically conductive supporting structure, which can preferably be chemically inert, is contacted with protons or a target molecule to be reduced and nicotinamide cofactors in presence of an electric current and one or more electrically driven redox mediators. Methods and systems for production of hydrogen or a reduced target molecule are also described wherein a membrane-bound hydrogenase enzyme or enzyme capable or reducing a target molecule is contacted with protons or the target molecule, a nicotinamide co-factor and a nicotinamide co-factor dependent membrane hydrogenase presented on a nanolipoprotein particle for a time and under condition to allow hydrogen production or production of a reduced target molecule in presence of an electrical current and of an electrically driven redox mediator.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT GRANT
 The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 between the U.S. Department of Energy and Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC.