Disclosed herein are methods for characterizing environmental factors that affect glass substrates and then based on those factors, determining the optimal coatings to be applied to glass substrates used in solar energy modules and the like to enhance efficiency, general performance and to reduce operational and maintenance costs. Also disclosed are methods and apparatus for applying coatings to flat substrates including substrate pre-treatment processes, coating processes including flow coating and roll coating; coating curing processes including skin-curing using hot-air knives. Also disclosed are coating compositions and formulations for highly tunable, durable, highly abrasion resistant functionalized anti-reflective coatings.
STATEMENT REGARDING GOVERNMENT FUNDING
 This invention was made with government support under Contract DE-EE0006040 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.