Apparatus and methods for a market-based control framework to coordinate a group of autonomous thermostatically controlled loads (TCL) to achieve system-level objectives with pricing incentives is disclosed. In one example of the disclosed technology, a method of providing power to a load via a power grid by submitting bids to a coordinator includes determining an energy response relating price data for one or more energy prices to quantity data for power to be consumed by the load, sending a bid for power for a finite time period based on the energy response to the coordinator, and receiving a clearing price based on: the bid, on bids received from a plurality of additional loads, and a feeder power constraint. In some examples, the energy response is based at least in part on an equivalent thermal parameter model and a control policy indicating one or more power states for the load.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
 This invention was made with Government support under Contract DE-ACO576RL01830 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.