NNA-derived specific adducts represent an integrated biomarker of exposure to thirdhand smoke (THS) as NNA is unique to THS. The NNA-dG covalent binding adduct could serve as such a biomarker, and play a role in identifying individuals exposed to THS, thus providing critical information for early detection and prevention.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENTAL SUPPORT
 This invention was made during work supported by U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 and by Grant Nos. 19XT-0070 and 19ST-0185 awarded by the Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program (TRDRP) of the State of California. The government has certain rights in this invention.