Thermostats and operational methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermostat includes an interface configured to receive a control signal, wherein the control signal comprises fast components and slow components, and the fast components change at an increased rate compared with slow components of the control signal, control circuitry including a fast response controller configured to use the fast components of the control signal to generate a fast temperature offset, a slow response controller configured to use the slow components of the control signal to generate a slow temperature offset, and wherein the control circuitry is configured to use the fast temperature offset and the slow temperature offset to control a conditioning apparatus to at least one of heat and cool a conditioned area at a plurality of moments in time.
STATEMENT AS TO RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE UNDER FEDERALLY-SPONSORED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with Government support under Contract DE-AC0576RLO1830 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.