A flow battery includes a cell that has first and second flow fields spaced apart from each other and an electrolyte separator layer. A supply/storage system is external of the cell and includes first and second vessels fluidly connected with the first and second flow fields, and first and second pumps configured to selectively move first and second fluid electrolytes between the vessels and the first and second flow fields. The flow fields each have an electrochemically active zone that is configured to receive flow of the fluid electrolytes. The electrochemically active zone has a total open volume that is a function of at least one of a power parameter of the flow battery, a time parameter of the pumps and a concentration parameter of the fluid electrolytes.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with government support under contract number DE-AR0000149 awarded by the United States Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.