Various innovations for a transactive control framework with heterogeneous devices such as refrigerators, air conditioners, water heaters, and clothes dryers, or components of such systems/units, are presented. For example, an aggregator for the transactive control framework receives bids from device controllers for heterogeneous devices. Different bids can reflect different behaviors of heterogeneous devices under one transactive control framework, which allows the heterogeneous devices to participate in the same ancillary service market for power. The aggregator determines a cleared price value, then broadcasts the cleared price value and a regulation signal to the device controllers. The device controllers can use a stochastic decision-making process to regulate power utilization by the respective heterogeneous devices, such that the aggregate behavior of the controlled devices tracks the regulation signal. In many case, the transactive control framework helps the devices, collectively, provide a regulation service according to the regulation signal.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
 This invention was made with government support under Contract DE-ACO5-76RL01830 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.