A catalyst is described that is useful for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass to produce a pyrolysis product. The catalyst includes (i) matrix material comprising a support and/or binder, and (ii) at least one metal oxide on the matrix material, wherein the metal oxide comprises metal selected from the group consisting of tungsten, chromium, cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, and combinations thereof. Corresponding catalytic pyrolysis processes and catalytic pyrolysis apparatus are disclosed, in which the catalyst enables the production of low oxygen content, stable liquid intermediates that can be refined to make liquid hydrocarbon fuels.
GOVERNMENT RIGHTS IN THE INVENTION
 The present invention was made with United States Government support under Grant No. DE-AR0000021 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy/Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (DOE/ARPA-E). The United States Government has certain rights in the invention.