Some embodiments of the present invention provide an assembly for harvesting light comprising a first molecule joined to a metal oxide surface through a surface linking group and a second molecule joined to the metal oxide surface. Such assemblies can harvest light to do useful chemistry, such as in a dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cell, or a molecular catalyst-solar cell system. In other embodiments, the harvested light can be converted into electricity, such as in a dye-sensitized solar cell. Other embodiments of the present invention provide methods for stabilizing a chromophore or a catalyst on a surface. These methods are applicable, for example, to dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells where the surface-bound chromophores are known to be unstable under aqueous conditions.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY-SPONSORED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with government support from the U.S. Department of Energy under awards numbers DE-SC0001011, DE-FG02-06ER15788, and DE-FG26-08NT01925. The U.S. Government has certain rights in the invention.