Systems and methods as well as components and techniques can exhibit stable and accurate control of a deposition process by monitoring background-corrected deposition rates of an atomic species via atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy. The systems and methods have high sensitivity and resolution in addition to extremely effective background correction and baseline drift removal, achieved in part by basing the background correction and baseline drift removal on analysis of resonant and non-resonant AA lines. The systems and methods can result in surprisingly short warm-up times and can drastically reduce the noise coming from the instruments and the surrounding environment.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with Government support under Contract DE-AC0576RLO1830 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.