Provided herein are implantable biomedical devices and methods of administering implantable biomedical devices, making implantable biomedical devices, and using implantable biomedical devices to actuate a target tissue or sense a parameter associated with the target tissue in a biological environment.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with United States governmental support under Award Nos. DE-FG02-07ER46471 and DE-FG02-91 ER45439 awarded by The U.S. Department of Energy, and by Contract No. W911 NF-07-1-0618 awarded by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory. The U.S. government has certain rights in the invention.