Apparatus, systems, and methods for capacitive desalination using segmented electrodes in a flow-through or flow-between configuration. The segmented electrodes constitute layered stack electrode units. Each electrode includes pores into which the target salt water flows. An electrical circuit energizes the electrodes and produces an electrical field acting on the target salt water producing desalted water. The segmented electrodes provide ultra-thin cells into a robust framework necessary for desalination applications which yield orders of magnitude faster desalination.
STATEMENT AS TO RIGHTS TO APPLICATIONS MADE UNDER FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
 The United States Government has rights in this application pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 between the United States Department of Energy and Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC for the operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This invention was made with Government support under contracts 0967600 awarded by the National Science Foundation and DE-AC52-07NA27344 awarded by the Department of Energy to Stanford University. The Government has certain rights in this application.