An autonomous monitoring apparatus for monitoring air, water, soil, or other substance for bioagents. A collector gathers a quantity of the air, water, soil, or other substance being monitored. A sample preparation system prepares a sample of the selected potential bioagent particles. The sample is analyzed by a system for detecting said bioagents.
 The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48 between the United States Department of Energy and the University of California for the operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.