A coated substrate is formed with aligned objects such as small molecules, macromolecules and nanoscale particulates, such as inorganic, organic or inorganic/organic hybrid materials. In accordance with one or more embodiments, an apparatus or method involves an applicator having at least one surface patterned with protruded or indented features, and a coated substrate including a solution-based layer of objects having features and morphology attributes arranged as a function of the protruded or indented features.
FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with Government support under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515 awarded by the Department of Energy and under contract 0705687 awarded by the National Science Foundation. The Government has certain rights in this invention.