A photoanode includes a passivation layer on a light absorber. The passivation layer is more resistant to corrosion than the light absorber. The photoanode includes a surface modifying layer that is location on the passivation layer such that the passivation layer is between the light absorber and the surface modifying layer. The surface modifying layer reduces a resistance of the passivation layer to conduction of holes out of the passivation layer.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH
 This invention was made with government support under DE-SC0004993/T-106372 awarded by the Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.