The disclosure provides conductive membranes for water splitting and solar fuel generation. The membranes comprise an embedded semiconductive/photoactive material and an oxygen or hydrogen evolution catalyst. Also provided are chassis and cassettes containing the membranes for use in fuel generation.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH
 This invention was made with government support under DE-SC0004993 (T-105569) awarded by U.S. Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention. The invention described herein was made in the performance of work under a NASA contract, and is subject to the provisions of Public Law 96-517 (35 USC 202) in which the Contractor has elected to retain title.