Some embodiments of the present invention provide an assembly for harvesting light, comprising a first molecule joined to a second molecule through mutual coordination to an ion, and the first molecule is linked to a metal oxide surface having a high surface area. Such assemblies can form multilayer films, in other embodiments. The assemblies and multilayer films can harvest light to do useful chemistry, such as in a dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cell, or can convert the harvested light into electricity, such as in a dye-sensitized solar cell.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY-SPONSORED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with government support under Award No. DESC0001011 awarded by the Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.