The present invention is directed to a novel type of monolithic hybrid technology. The invention is directed to photonic devices with a minimum of three (3) electrodes and by an inventive process for incorporating mobile ions into organic components of high performance organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, organic photodetectors and other hybrid photonic devices (such as tandems of OPV), through a novel unique device architecture of a hybrid "Ionic-NT-OPV" structure, in which the ionic components are separated from the OPV by a common nanoporous charge collecting electrode (symbolically depicted as a nanotube: NT), permeable to ions of ionic component inside an inter-connected microchamber.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY-SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with government support under DOE Phase I and Phase II STTR Grant No. DE-SC 0003664 awarded by the Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.