This document provides methods, systems, and devices for inducing a decomposition reaction by directing x-rays towards a location including a particular compound. The x-rays can have an irradiation energy that corresponds to a bond distance of a bond in the particular compound in order to break that bond and induce a decomposition of that particular compound. In some cases, the particular compound is a hazardous substance or part of a hazardous substance. In some cases, the particular compound is delivered to a desired location in an organism and x-rays induce a decomposition reaction that creates a therapeutic substance (e.g., a toxin that kills cancer cells) in the location of the organism. In some cases, the particular compound decomposes to produce a reactant in a reactor apparatus (e.g., fuel cell or semiconductor fabricator).
FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number(s) DE-NA0000979 and DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC08-01NV14049 with the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. The Government has certain rights in the invention.