A lithium ion battery includes a positive electrode comprising carbon fibers, a binder composition with conductive carbon, and a lithium rich composition. The lithium rich composition comprises at least one selected from the group consisting of Li.sub.1+x(My Mz.sup.II Mw.sup.III)O.sub.2 where x+y+z=1, and xLi.sub.2MnO.sub.3(1-x)LiMO.sub.2, where x=0.2-0.7, and where M, M.sup.II and M.sup.III are interchangeably manganese, nickel and cobalt, and LiM.sub.2-xM.sub.x.sup.IIO.sub.4 , where M and M.sup.II are manganese and nickel, respectively, with x=0.5. A negative electrode comprises carbon fibers having bound thereto silicon nanoparticles, and a mesophase pitch derived carbon binder between the silicon nanoparticles and the carbon fibers. An electrolyte is interposed between the positive electrode and the negative electrode. Methods of making positive and negative electrodes are also disclosed.