Various technologies described herein pertain to assembling electronic devices into a microsystem. The electronic devices are disposed in a solution. Light can be applied to the electronic devices in the solution. The electronic devices can generate currents responsive to the light applied to the electronic devices in the solution, and the currents can cause electrochemical reactions that functionalize regions on surfaces of the electronic devices. Additionally or alternatively, the light applied to the electronic devices in the solution can cause the electronic devices to generate electric fields, which can orient the electronic devices and/or induce movement of the electronic devices with respect to a receiving substrate. Further, electrodes on a receiving substrate can be biased to attract and form connections with the electronic devices having the functionalized regions on the surfaces. The microsystem can include the receiving substrate and the electronic devices connected to the receiving substrate.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENTAL INTEREST
 This invention was developed under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 between Sandia Corporation and the U.S. Department of Energy. The U.S. Government has certain rights in this invention.