This invention provides new methods and apparatus for rapidly analyzing single bioparticles to assess their material condition and health status. The methods are enabled by a resonant cavity to measure optical properties related to the bioparticle size and refractive index. Refractive index measurements are useful for determining material properties and biomolecular composition of the bioparticle. These properties and composition are dependent on the health state of the bioparticle. Thus, measured optical properties can be used to differentiate normal (healthy) and abnormal (diseased) states of bioparticles derived from cells or tissues. The methods are illustrated with data obtained from a resonator with a gain medium. The invention also provides new methods for multiple measurements in a single device, analyzing and manipulating bioparticles that are much smaller than the wavelength of light, and provides a microfluidic transport chip to enable rapid single bioparticle analysis of large populations of bioparticles.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED R&D
 This invention was made with partial Government support under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy to Sandia Corporation for the management and operation of the Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia has waived its rights to the Department of Energy which has in turn waived rights to the inventor. The Government retains certain rights in the invention.