A method of refining the grain structure and improving the hardness and strength properties of a metal or metal alloy workpiece is disclosed. The workpiece is subjected to forces that corrugate and then straighten the workpiece. These steps are repeated until an ultrafine-grained product having improved hardness and strength is produced.
 This invention was made with government support under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy to The Regents to the University of California. The U.S. Government has certain rights in the invention.