This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to optofluidic devices. In one aspect, an optofluidic device includes a substrate, a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a cover. A channel having cross-sectional dimensions of less than about 100 nanometers is defined in a surface of the substrate. The first nanostructure is disposed on the substrate on a first side of the channel and proximate the channel. The second nanostructure is disposed on the substrate on a second side of the channel and proximate the channel. The first and the second nanostructures are disposed on a line that passes across the channel. The cover is disposed on the surface of the substrate.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
 This invention was made with government support under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in this invention.