A probe is configured for measuring an electrical impedance of a workpiece using external testing equipment. The probe includes a non-conducting base and an array of at least four spaced-apart line conductors. The at least four spaced-apart line conductors are disposed generally in parallel to each other along their lengths on a surface of the non-conducting base and are electrically connected to a corresponding array of at least four terminals on the non-conducting base. The non-conducting base is configured to be placed over a surface of the workpiece so that the at least four spaced-apart line conductors contact the surface of the workpiece and the at least four terminals are configured to be connected the external testing equipment.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH
 This invention was made with government support under a grant awarded by the United States Department of Energy Office of Vehicle Technologies, Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. The government has certain rights in the invention.