The present disclosure provides methods and systems for electrorefining high-purity materials, for example, silicon. An exemplary system includes at least one cathode, an anode, and a reference electrode. At least one controller, for example a potentiostat, is used to control the potential difference between a reference electrode and a cathode or anode. The system can be operated in a single phase or multiple phase operation to produce high-purity materials, such as solar-grade silicon.
FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with government support under grant number DE-SC0008862 awarded by the Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.