Provided herein are systems and methods for the detection, quantification, and/or monitoring of analytes in samples. The systems and methods can be used, for example, to track the deposition and electrochemical behavior of individual nanoparticles and nanoparticles clusters clusters in situ with high spatial and temporal resolution. The systems and methods can be used to track the deposition and oxidation of several hundreds to thousands of nanoparticles simultaneously and reconstruct their voltammetric curves at the single nanoparticle level.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
 This invention was made with government support under Grant No. DE-SC0005392 awarded by the Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in this invention.