Compositions and methods of making are provided for surface modified electrodes and batteries comprising the same. The compositions may comprise a base composition having an active material capable of intercalating the metal ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the metal ions during a charge cycle, wherein the active material is selected from the group consisting of LiCoO.sub.2, LiMn.sub.2O.sub.4, Li.sub.2MnO.sub.3, LiNiO.sub.2, LiMn.sub.1.5Ni.sub.0.5O.sub.4, LiFePO.sub.4, Li.sub.2FePO.sub.4F, Li.sub.3CoNiMnO.sub.6, Li(Li.sub.aNi.sub.xMn.sub.yCo.sub.z)O.sub.2, Li.sub.aMn.sub.1.5-bNi.sub.0.5-cM.sub.dO.sub.4-x, and mixtures thereof. The compositions may also comprise an annealed composition covering a portion of the base composition, formed by a reaction of the base composition in a reducing atmosphere. The methods of making comprise providing the base composition and annealing the base electrode in a reducing atmosphere.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST
 The invention was made with government support under contract number DE-AC05-00OR22725 by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.