A delta signal and opposite delta signal are generated such that a sum of the two signals is substantially zero. The delta signal is applied across a first set of electrochemical cells. The opposite delta signal is applied across a second set of electrochemical cells series connected to the first set. A first held voltage is established as the voltage across the first set. A second held voltage is established as the voltage across the second set. A first delta signal is added to the first held voltage and applied to the first set. A second delta signal is added to the second held voltage and applied to the second set. The current responses due to the added delta voltages travel only into the set associated with its delta voltage. The delta voltages and the current responses are used to calculate the impedances of their associated cells.
 This invention was made with government support under Contract Number DE-AC07-051D14517 awarded by the United States Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.