Photocatalytic structures having a capillary-force based electrolyte delivery system are provided. Also provided are photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic cells incorporating the structures and methods for using the cells to generate hydrogen and/or oxygen from water. The photocatalytic structures use an electrolyte-transporting strip comprising a porous network of cellulose nanofibers to transport electrolyte from a body of the electrolyte to a porous photoelectrode or a porous photocatalytic substrate via capillary force.
REFERENCE TO GOVERNMENT RIGHTS
 This invention was made with government support under grant number DE-SC0008711 awarded by the Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.