A method of forming a composite material for use in multi-modal transport includes providing three-dimensional graphene having hollow channels, enabling a polymer to wick into the hollow channels of the three-dimensional graphene, curing the polymer to form a cured three-dimensional graphene, adding an active material to the cured three-dimensional graphene to form a composite material, and removing the polymer from within the hollow channels. A composite material formed according to the method is also provided.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with Government support under Grant No. DE-AR0000185 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.