High quality ammonothermal group III metal nitride crystals having a pattern of locally-approximately-linear arrays of threading dislocations, methods of manufacturing high quality ammonothermal group III metal nitride crystals, and methods of using such crystals are disclosed. The crystals are useful for seed bulk crystal growth and as substrates for light emitting diodes, laser diodes, transistors, photodetectors, solar cells, and for photoelectrochemical water splitting for hydrogen generation devices.
GOVERNMENT LICENSE RIGHTS
 Certain embodiments disclosed herein were made with partial government support under Grant IIP-1026896, awarded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, and Cooperative Agreement DE-AR0000020, awarded by the U.S. Advanced Research Projects Agency--Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.