A method for producing an array of oriented nanofibers that involves forming a solution that includes at least one electroactive species. An electrode substrate is brought into contact with the solution. A current density is applied to the electrode substrate that includes at least a first step of applying a first substantially constant current density for a first time period and a second step of applying a second substantially constant current density for a second time period. The first and second time periods are of sufficient duration to electrically deposit on the electrode substrate an array of oriented nanofibers produced from the electroactive species. Also disclosed are films that include arrays or networks of oriented nanofibers and a method for amperometrically detecting or measuring at least one analyte in a sample.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
 This invention was made with United States Government support under Contract DE-AC0676RL01830 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Unites States Government has certain rights in the invention.