Aspects of the present disclosure are directed towards energy storage devices, and methods of manufacturing such devices. Energy storage devices, consistent with the present disclosure, include a source of lithium ions, a plurality of nanoparticles, and a conductive polymer network. The nanoparticles are encapsulated in conductive polymer shells and volumetrically change due to lithiation and delithiation due to movement of the lithium ions created by an electrical potential. The conductive polymer network bonds to the nanoparticles and accommodates volumetric changes of the plurality of nanoparticles during lithiation and delithiation.
FEDERALLY-SPONSORED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with Government support under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.