A particle charging method and apparatus are provided. An ion source is applied to a particle laden flow. The flow is introduced into a container in a laminar manner. The container has at least a first section, a second section and a third section. The first section includes wetted walls at a first temperature. A second section adjacent to the first section has wetted walls at a second temperature T2 greater than the first temperature T1. A third section adjacent to the second section has dry walls provided at a temperature T3 equal to or greater than T2. Additional water removal and temperature conditioning sections may be provided.
GOVERNMENT LICENSE RIGHTS
 This technology was made with government support under Grant No. DE-SC0004643 and DE-SC00009644 from the US Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the technology.